There are many inexplicable structures scattered to the far flung reaches of this planet. No matter the continent or the country, each has its own inexplicable megalithic sites and mystifying edifices.

Some of these are well known whereas others are hidden away, covered in dense undergrowth or placed in remote locations, still awaiting discovery.

Archaeologists and historians have investigated many of the more renowned sites and have provided the public with their conclusions. These conclusions are generally accepted as fact, even though the majority are based upon nothing more than supposition and assumption.

Whether the deductions are regarding age and origin, or construction methods, they are usually formulated from ideas and hypothesis. There are very few historical records, and even fewer known facts regarding these amazing structures.

A prime example of this lack of true knowledge is the Great Pyramid of Giza. This is one of the best known ancient structures in the world. It is listed as one of the seven wonders of the world. Yet very few real facts are known about this mysterious building.

Although nothing more than assumption, based upon speculative archaeological dating methods, it is generally accepted by historians and Egyptologists that the great pyramid was constructed between 4,500 and 5,000 years ago, by the Egyptians, as a tomb for theÂ forth dynasty Egyptian Pharaoh Khufu, also known as Cheops. It was supposedly built over a twenty year period, culminating in 2,560BC. Everything that is claimed by Egyptologists regarding this pyramid is based upon nothing more than a single mark found in an interior chamber naming a work gang (or so it is proposed). Hardly concrete evidence!

Although the actual construction process is completely unknown many theories have been proposed about how the huge megalithic blocks used in its construction were moved and positioned. Although intriguing, the method of construction is, and will most probably remain, a complete mystery.

If as claimed however, the Great Pyramid was constructed in just 20 years, then its builders were nothing short of phenomenal!

There are estimated to be 2,300,000 blocks used in the construction, each weighing anywhere between 2.5 and 80 tons. To complete the construction in just 20 years, each block would have to be quarried, cut, transported and put into place every 4.6 minutes, 24 hours per day, 7 days a week, 52 weeks a year, for twenty years.

Furthermore, the above timescale completely ignores the thousands of highly polished, precisely cut casing stones. Stones that were so precisely carved that they fitted together with a tolerance of just 1/50^{th} of an inch, a feat that could only be accomplished today with modern machining methods.

If one further considers that much of the stone used in the construction was quarried in Aswan, almost 500 miles away, and had to be transported across gruelling landscape and the river Nile to its destination, one soon realises how ludicrous this built in 20 years assertion is.

One has to ponder that if a fact as basic as the logistics required for its construction could be so woefully ridiculous, then one has to question every other assertion made about this enigmatic masterpiece.

What has been discovered about its construction however, will probably astonish many.

Firstly the Great Pyramid of Giza has not four, but eight sides! Each of its four faces is split perfectly into two concave halves, and the only time this is visible to the naked eye is for a few minutes at sunrise and sunset on the spring and autumn equinoxes, when a shadow is cast by the sun highlighting its concavity.

This fact was only discovered quite by accident in 1940, when a British Air Force pilot, P. Groves, was flying over the pyramid. He happened to notice the concavity and captured it in the photograph shown below.

However, as fascinating as this is, it is nothing compared to other amazing facts discovered within this intriguing construction. Discoveries that most archaeologists and Egyptologists would dismiss as chance or coincidence, and banish from their thoughts, as to acknowledge them would necessitate abandoning their current beliefs and reassessing their whole ethos.

Before we explore further the astounding discoveries unearthed regarding this remarkable construction itself, let us ponder some incredible artefacts found within the pyramid.

During excavations thousands upon thousands of bowls, dishes and other stoneware were discovered, approximately 40,000 in total. That in itself is not particularly newsworthy. However, when one takes a closer look at some of these finds, one has to ask just how they were created by a relatively primitive people, with extremely primitive tools.

One example is sitting in a museum in Cairo. Hewn from a solid lump of granite with such precision its creation cannot be replicated today, even with our modern machining methods. This particular bowl is completely circular with no flat base upon which to sit. It is so flawlessly created that the entire bowl balances perfectly on a round tipped bottom no bigger than the tip of a hen’s egg. This requires that the entire bowl have a symmetrical wall thickness without any substantial error.

The skill required to produce such an extraordinary piece would raise the eyebrows of any modern day machinist. To produce such a piece in clay would be very impressive. To do so in granite, one of the hardest substances known to man, is inconceivable.

Yet once again we are expected to believe that this remarkable creation was sculptured with nothing more sophisticated that a copper chisel and stone mallet!

However, this amazing precision was not just limited to stoneware, but was also prevalent in the construction of the pyramid itself.

The upper chamber within the Great Pyramid has walls that are perfectly vertical, and a floor and ceiling that are perfectly horizontal, to within one fiftieth of an inch! Considering that this chamber is constructed from huge granite blocks, weighing up to 80 tons each, along with the fact that the Egyptians did not possess tools capable of measuring with such precision, one has to ask how they managed to achieve such remarkable accuracy.

Additionally, the Giza pyramid is aligned to true north so precisely, it can be measured to within one five hundredth of a degree. A feat we have only managed to get remotely close to fairly recently

And they did all of this with nothing more than stone mallets, copper chisels, and hemp ropes?

Can we be absolutely certain that the Great Pyramid of Giza was really built by the Egyptians? Or is it more feasible that an older more advanced civilisation were the true builders?

One only needs to investigate the complicated mathematics and geometry encoded into the construction of the Great Pyramid, to realise that something is very very wrong with the orthodox explanations. Mathematical knowledge that, according to conventional understanding of the Egyptian civilisation, they did not possess.

In 1859 an Englishman by the name of John Taylor made an astounding discovery. Whilst working on the dimensions of the pyramid he carried out some basic mathematical sums. He divided the measurement of half the perimeter by the height of the pyramid (measured in cubits). This gave the number 3.1415. This might seem insignificant until one realises that this is the number of Pi , a formula that is not recorded anywhere in ancient Egyptian writings or texts, and is believed to have been completely unknown to them.

A coincidence one might suppose.

But the coincidences don’t end there. If one takes the surface area of the four sides and divides that by the surface area of the base. The result is 1.6180339887, otherwise known as the Golden Ratio (golden number) or Phi, another unique number not known to have been discovered at the [supposed] time of the pyramids construction. The Golden Ratio is believed to be a constant in the universe, and is found in many geometric forms in nature.

Another coincidence? If so prepare to be astonished because these remarkable coincidences don’t end there!

By dividing the distance of the half perimeter by the total height (measured in metres) the result is the Golden Number (Phi) squared.

If one were to draw a square the same size as the base of the pyramid, then draw a circle with the same circumference as the square. The radius of this circle would equal the height of the pyramid.

By taking the length of the pyramid and subtracting the height. The number left is 314.16 or 100 times Pi.

Adding together the surface area of two sides of the pyramid equals 100 times the Golden Number squared.

If one adds together the length of two sides, the resultant figure equals the distance a point on the equator travels in metres, in one second, as the Earth rotates on its axis.

If the Great Pyramid was just a few centimetres larger or smaller, none of the above would be true!

Still believe in coincidences?

These remarkable discoveries continue inside the pyramid.

In the upper chamber the length of the four sides added together equals 10 times Pi. If one then subtracts the length of one side one is left with 10 times Phi squared.

It appears that the mathematics and geometry used in the design and construction of the Great Pyramid far surpasses any known knowledge the Egyptians were acknowledged to possess.

A further fact to consider when contemplating the amazingly complex equations used in the design and construction of the Great Pyramid is that many of the above mathematical formulae relate to measurements determined in metres, or metric. The astonishing realisation here is that the length of a metre is based upon precise calculations of the circumference of the Earth, a distance supposedly only discovered by Eratosthenes, a Greek mathematician, in the third century BC. The metre itself was not discovered until 1793AD!

Or should that really say re-discovered?

The advocates of the Egyptology theory insist that the only measuring device available to the Egyptians was the cubit, a varying approximate measuring device with a length supposedly equal to the average length of the forearm. This conclusion is based upon the discovery of a pictogram of a forearm found engraved upon an ancient cubit. But then I suppose this is to be expected, as most of our established history is based upon nothing more than the reputable science of best guess!

In 1925 experts and archaeologists including Jean Phillipe Lauer, Eugene Emile Antoniadi, and Jean Kerisel, deduced the actual measurement of the cubit from the dimensions of the Great Pyramid. It is now universally accepted that the true length of a cubit is 0.5236 of a metre or 52cm 3mm and 6/10 of a mm.

However, there are other methods to arrive at this figure. If one were to draw a circle with a ** diameter of one metre** 1 sixth of the circumference of this circle would equal 0.5236 of a metre. Another formula used to arrive at this figure is Pi minus Phi squared, the result is an identical 0.5236!

Whichever process is used to arrive at the precise measurement of a cubit, one has to accept that, given our present understanding of their knowledge, neither of the above methods could have been known to the ancient Egyptians. Yet the very dimensions of the Great Pyramid itself prove beyond any doubt that whoever did build it, either had knowledge of the metric system, or knowledge of intricate mathematical formulae.

There is nonetheless a further measurement encoded into the dimensions of the Great Pyramid. A number that when revealed, shocked and dumbfounded its discoverer, and scientists and mathematicians worldwide.

If one takes a birds eye view of the pyramid (as in the diagram below), and then draws two circles, one inside the base and one outside, then subtracts the circumference of the inner circle from that of the outer, one is left with the number 299,79613.This might seem unremarkable until one realises that this is the measurement of the speed of light! (299,792,458 metres per second)

Many, including scholars and historians, will reject the above, insisting that it is all mere chance and coincidence, whilst maintaining that the Egyptians managed to quarry, cut, dress, transport, and place, millions of huge stone blocks with nothing more than primitive tools, and do so with such accuracy and precision that we, as a supposedly vastly more technologically advanced civilisation, couldn’t replicate today.

However, the anomalies of the Great Pyramid of Giza are just the very tip of the iceberg. When one begins to investigate the myriad of other ancient megalithic and prehistoric monuments around the globe, or analyses countless artefacts discovered at these sites, one soon begins to question the reliability of mainstream explanations of these structures and relics, and how or who supposedly built them.

Perhaps this article so far hasn’t completely answered the poser set in the title, and some might consider it has rather offered just anecdotal evidence of a long lost, ancient, and highly civilised society. However, the above is just a taster of the astonishing data to be presented in next issues continuation of this article.

All I can tell you about the next expose is:

*Prepare to have your mind blown!*

Please can you elaborate regarding the point on the speed of light being encoded into the Pyramid’s base dimensions – surely 299,79613 and 299,792,458 are not actually the same number at all? Am I missing something here, is it a simple typo, or something else altogether? Thank you.